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Both food poisoning and stomach flu can give rise to nausea, vomiting, cramps and diarrhoea - but the two conditions are in fact of different aetiology. Consuming food that has been contaminated with viruses, bacteria or parasites at some point during production causes food poisoning, whereas stomach flu is a viral infection of the digestive system. Stomach flu is most commonly brought on by norovirus or rotavirus, and is different from the conventional flu, which attacks the respiratory system. Both food poisoning and stomach flu cause a condition known as gastroenteritis –inflammation of the gut, which may involve the stomach, the small and/or large intestine.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO) report on the estimates of the global burden of foodborne diseases in 2010, there were approximately 600 million foodborne illnesses causing 420,000 deaths. 

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With final packing and preparations well underway for those lucky travellers heading to the Olympic Games, there are just 16 days until the official opening ceremony. Travelvax has compiled a medical checklist outlining a few specific concerns for travel to Brazil, as well as the predictable stomach upsets, sunburn and security.

Events of the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games, while primarily set in Rio de Janeiro during August and September, will also take place in Belo Horizonte, Brasilia, Manaus, Salvador and São Paulo. To these areas, more than 200 member nations will arrive bringing over 10,000 athletes; in excess of 1 million visitors are expected to view the spectacle. As could be expected, the risk of spreading communicable diseases is increased with such large numbers - crowding, shared accommodation, travellers from all continents, as well as the diverse and varying ecology of Brazil, will put travellers and host-country residents at risk.

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Each year the Hajj pilgrimage takes place in Saudi Arabia when more than 3 million Muslims from over 183 countries converge on the city of Mecca. From a public health point of view, any gathering of this size presents its own problems as the risks of infectious diseases being spread across the globe when the pilgrims return home are amplified.

Every able-bodied Muslim who has the means to do so must attend the Hajj at least once in his or her lifetime. The annual gathering, which takes place from the 8th to the 12th day of Dhu al-Hjja (the last month of the Islamic year), will take place this year between the 9th and 13th of September. Another pilgrimage, Umrah, can be carried out at any time of the year.

Due to the sheer numbers attending the Hajj, the risk of spreading communicable diseases is increased - severe crowding, shared accommodation, difficulty in attending to personal hygiene and environmental pollution all play a part. To minimise the likelihood of this, each year the Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH) publishes health recommendations, with particular emphasis on those who are likely to suffer from complications from any illness.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has published this year’s recommendations in the July 1 edition of its Weekly Epidemiological Record:

Required vaccinations:
- Proof of yellow fever vaccination is required from all travellers arriving from countries or areas at risk of yellow fever at least 10 days before arrival at the border (the MOH provides a list of affected countries in Africa and South/Central America). 
- Meningococcal meningitis (4-in-1) vaccination for ACW135Y strains is required from all pilgrims and workers at Hajj sites. Two vaccine options are available now, one a polysaccharide and the other a conjugate (longer-lasting and with additional benefits). Travellers arriving from the African meningococcal meningitis belt countries will receive preventative antibiotics on entry into Saudi Arabia. 
- Poliomyelitis vaccination for all pilgrims travelling from countries specified by the MOH. The certificate must show that the vaccine was given within a year, and not less than one month prior to departure, for Saudi Arabia. Additionally, regardless of age or vaccination history, one dose of the oral polio vaccine must be recorded. 

Recommended vaccinations:
- Seasonal influenza vaccination is recommended for all pilgrims and Hajj workers, particularly those with underlying medical conditions.

Other precautions recommended by the ministry are aimed at preventing Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection and include the advice to postpone travel to the Hajj for the elderly, pregnant women and children, as well as those suffering from chronic diseases, immune deficiency disorders and malignancies.

Comprehensive information with full details is now available on this WHO webpage

Final health recommendations for each traveller will be decided in consultation with a medical practitioner. For more general travel health information, contact the Travelvax information phone line during business hours on 1300 360 164.

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Booming low-cost air travel is helping to fuel outbreaks of dengue fever across Southeast Asian countries, according to an expert in the mosquito-borne disease.
The combination of no-frills Asian carriers and low oil prices have made cheap flights the norm between the 10 Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries – Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar (Burma), and Vietnam.
In addition, ASEAN’s Open Sky Policy – which allows unrestricted air travel by local airlines within the region – has made travel even more accessible for both Asian and international travellers.
“The increase in the number of budget airlines in the region has been dramatic in the last 10 to 15 years,” said Professor Tikki Pang, of the National University of Singapore.
“This is obviously helping dengue to move around the region: There is more movement of infected people. Flight distances in this part of the world are fairly short, so people can get on a plane for an hour or two even if they have dengue fever.”

Aussie travellers need to be on guard

Australian travellers visiting South-East Asia and other tropical regions can’t afford to be complacent about the risk from disease-carrying mosquitoes, said Dr Eddy Bajrovic, Medical Director of Travelvax Australia. Besides the dengue virus, chikungunya, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, and now Zika, may also be circulating.
But, dengue is by far the most common insect-borne disease in the tropics. Dengue rates have increased dramatically in recent decades – particularly in tropical Asia, Latin America, Africa, and the Pacific – with an estimated 390 million cases occurring annually and around 40% of the world's population at risk.
Dr Bajrovic warned that Australia may well be on track for another big year of imported dengue cases.
“Already this year there’s been 1235 cases compared with 1157 in the first 6 months of 2015,” he said.
“The majority of local travellers who bring home dengue were infected in Indonesia, Thailand and other popular Asian destinations.”

Dodging dengue means dodging bites

The dengue, Zika and chikungunya viruses are all transmitted by two species of Aedes mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Both are aggressive day-time feeders that breed and bite in urban areas to be close to people, their favourite source of the blood meal the females need to lay eggs.
Minimise mosquito bites and you reduce the risk of infection. So…
– When outdoors, apply an insect repellent containing an effective ingredient such as DEET (30-50% formulations for adults, or 10-20% formulations for young children and infants as young as 2 months of age), Picaridin, IR3535, or preparations containing extract of lemon eucalyptus oil. Around dawn and dusk, when Aedes mosquitoes are most active, is the critical time to apply repellent.
– At these peak feeding times, move inside behind screened windows and doors. If that’s not possible, wear loose, long-sleeved shirts and long pants outdoors.
– Get rid of any standing water around your accommodation, including pot plant bases and other containers that collect water.
– If you are using sunscreen, apply it first BEFORE your insect repellent.
– If you’re likely to be consistently exposed to insect bites, soak your clothing and bed net (if your room is not screened) with permethrin. This contact insecticide repels mosquitoes and other insects, and also kills them when they come in contact with the treated material. (Permethrin shouldn’t be applied directly to your skin. Read more about permethrin and how to protect yourself against insect bites.)
The fewer times you get bitten, the lower the risk of infection.
Don’t get bitten and there’s absolutely no chance at all.
Did you know you can get no-obligation, country-specific advice on insect-borne diseases and other potential health risks of your next overseas destination by calling Travelvax Australia’s travel health advisory service on 1300 360 164 (free to landlines)?


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Snow is falling along with the mercury as winter bites in the southern states of eastern Australia.
If you are heading for the snowfields, we’ve got some advice to keep you healthy and safe on the slopes.

1 - Invest in quality eyewear

Snow can reflect as much as 80% of the sun’s rays – much higher than the reflection off sand, water, or cement – and it comes into your eyes from all angles. The higher the elevation, the less atmosphere there is to filter out harmful UV rays.
Your snow eyewear should:
– Provide 100% protection against both UV-A and UV-B radiation.
– Fit your face snugly from above your eyebrows to the middle of your cheeks
– Wrap around your face so UV rays and wind can’t reach your eyes from the side.
Eyewear that meets Australian Standard AS1067 is a guarantee that it will block at least 95% of UV radiation. Glacier goggles (or glacier sunglasses) are the best option: They fit like sunglasses but screen out light from the sides. Your optometrist can also fit prescription lenses.

2 – Be aware of snow blindness

Goggles also protect you from a very painful corneal injury (UV solar keratopathy or ‘snow blindness’). Essentially it is sunburn of the eye’s surface.
Snow blindness feels like sand or grit in your eyes. Its symptoms include watering of the eyes, bloodshot eyes, and uncontrollable twitching of the eyelid. If you experience the symptoms you should:
– Remove contact lenses if you’re wearing them.
– Lie down in a darkened room.
– Cover your eyes with a cool compress or dark cloth.
– Refrain from rubbing your eyes.
Happily, almost all cases of snow blindness heal spontaneously over a few days.

3 - Don’t forget the sunscreen

Vacations that involve snow skiing (or mountain climbing or high-altitude trekking) have the potential for sunburn because of increased levels of UV. UV radiation exposure increases by 4% for every 300m of elevation above sea level.
Even on a cloudy day, sunscreen should be applied at a rate of 2mg per square centimetre of exposed skin. Properly applied, a sunscreen with an SPF of +15 will protect you from 93% of UVB radiation; while SPF +30 protects against 97% of UVB; and SPF +50 offers protection against 98% of UVB.
SPF 30+ is the recommended sunscreen for fair-skinned people who burn frequently and rarely (or never) tan. For those with light-intermediate, olive, brown, or black skin who tan easily and rarely (if ever) get sunburned, SPF 15+ offers sufficient protection.
It’s worth remembering that all UV damage lasts a lifetime and potentially fatal melanomas can occur anywhere on the human body – even in the eye. If you damage your eyes or skin, the long-term effects may only become apparent years – even decades – later.

4 – Respond to hypothermia

Even experienced skiers, snowboarders and alpine hikers can get caught out by a sudden change of weather that sends the mercury plummeting. So, it pays to be aware of two other potential risks on the snowfields, hypothermia and frostbite.
Hypothermia can occur if your body temperature falls just a couple of degrees to less than 35°C. The initial signs include feeling cold and shivering with pale skin, which can progress to feelings of fatigue or exhaustion, drowsiness, confusion, slurred speech, and memory loss.
There are steps you can take to help someone with hypothermia until medical help arrives:
- Get them to a warm space out of the wind and remove any wet clothing.
- Raise their core temperature by wrapping their head, neck, chest, and groin in a blanket (electric, if you have one) or warm them with skin-to-skin contact under blankets or sheets.
- If conscious, encourage them to sit up to drink warm, non-alcoholic beverages, such as tea or coffee.
- After raising their core temperature, keep them wrapped in a warm blanket – including their head and neck.

5 – Know some frosty first-aid

Frostbite is any injury caused by freezing; usually the nose, ears, cheeks, chin, fingers, or toes. Severe frostbite can lead to permanent tissue damage – even amputation – especially in people with poor blood circulation.
Tell-tale signs of frostbite include reddened skin progressing to a white or greyish-yellow colour that may also feel unusually firm or ‘waxy’, along with numbness and blistering. With more advanced frostbite, the skin may darken and turn black.
Victims of frostbite also need urgent medical treatment from a trained professional, but there are simple steps you can take to provide initial first-aid:
- Get them into a warm space.
- Immerse the affected areas of skin in warm water (not hot) or warm the affected area using body heat.
- Don’t massage the affected areas – it could cause more damage.
- Arrange transportation to medical help. Walking on frostbitten feet or toes may increase the damage, particularly as the thawing and re-freezing of feet after they’ve been warmed will increase the tissue damage.

6 – Take care out there!

With dozens of people of wildly varying skill levels likely to be on the slopes at any one time, safety is everyone’s responsibility.
Off-piste collisions with trees, rocks and covered obstacles can result in serious injuries that may require urgent evacuation. It’s one domestic travel situation when it is important to have travel health insurance that suits the type of activity you’re undertaking.
Finally, it’s always a good idea to take a pre-travel course in first-aid and emergency resuscitation (CPR). The knowledge will give you the confidence to provide what help you can.
Before you travel, call Travelvax Australia’s telephone advisory service on 1300 360 164 (toll-free from landlines) for country-specific advice and information. You can also make an appointment at your nearest Travelvax clinic to obtain vaccinations, medication to prevent or treat illness, and accessories for your journey.

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The Australian government is advising pregnant women to consider postponing travel to Indonesia due to the potentially harmful impact of the Zika virus on their babies.
The Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade’s smartraveller website warns that Indonesia is experiencing sporadic transmission of the mosquito-borne virus.
It advises: “Given the possibility that Zika virus can cause severe malformations in unborn babies, and taking a very cautious approach, pregnant women should discuss any travel plans with their travel doctor and consider postponing travel to Indonesia."
Zika has been linked to a surge of microcephaly and other neurological conditions effecting thousands of babies. Most have occurred in Brazil but another 12 countries have now reported microcephaly in the infants of returned female travellers.
Taiwanese authorities quarantined a 22-year-old Indonesian sailor who displayed the typical Zika symptoms of fever and red eyes on arrival at Kaohsiung International Airport earlier in the month. It’s not known where the sailor was infected, however the Indonesian Ministry of Health sent a team to the man’s East Java village of Tangkil last week to determine if the virus was present in mosquitoes at or near his home.

‘Exercise high degree of caution’ - DFAT

Smartraveller’s overall travel advice for Indonesia otherwise remains unchanged: Australians are advised to protect themselves against mosquito bites and exercise ‘a high degree of caution’ in Indonesia, including Bali, due to the ongoing ‘high threat of terrorist attack’. Dengue fever and chikungunya fever are both circulating widely across Indonesia.
The new advice on Zika brings Australia into line with the World Health Organization and America’s Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in advising pregnant women against travel to areas where the virus is circulating.
Indonesian authorities say they have taken steps to respond to a possible outbreak of Zika. Dengue patients have been secretly tested for Zika, the health ministry's director general for disease prevention and control, Mohammad Subah told the local media outlets.
Zika virus is not yet a notifiable disease in Australia, so cases among returned travellers are not being collated by the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in the same way as dengue, chikungunya and other vector-borne diseases. 

No decline in Zika - WHO

According to its latest weekly Zika situation report, the WHO’s risk assessment remains unchanged: It sees no overall decline in the Zika epidemic in the Americas, though case rates have dropped in some countries or parts of countries. Zika is also circulating in regions of Asia and the Pacific. 
The CDC has advised that the USA has now recorded 3 infants with microcephaly on its Zika Pregnancy Register and 3 stillborn babies with birth defects. There have been 756 US travellers return home with Zika. 
El Salvador is the latest country in the Americas to report microcephaly in a child born to a Zika-infected mother, taking the number of countries with confirmed cases to 12.
Last week, Spanish doctors reported the details of a congenital Zika infection in the foetus of a woman infected with Zika in Venezuela. 
There is no vaccine available to prevent infection with Zika and travellers heading to risk areas are advised to use strict measures to avoid mosquito bites.

Read more on Zika from Travelvax Australia, the WHO and CDC. To discuss your travel plans, including the risk of insect-borne infections and any vaccinations recommended for your trip, call our free travel health advisory service on 1300 360 164.